Israel’s military said it had collided with Islamic Jihad targets in southern Damascus and the Gaza Strip on Sunday.
In a rare acknowledgement of a strike on Syria, Israel military said it targeted “a hub of Islamic Jihad’s activity”.
Syria said its air defenses shot down most of the Israel missiles.
Four people were wounded in Gaza, health officials say, but there have been no immediate reports of fatalities from the Israeli strikes.
The strikes were launched after southern Israel was hit by a barrage of at least 20 rockets fired from the Gaza Strip earlier on Sunday. There were no reports of victims.
The conflicts began on Sunday morning, when Israel said it killed an Islamic Jihad member along its border fence with the Gaza Strip.
Israel’s military said the man was attempting to plant an explosive device.
A video shared widely on social media showed an Israel bulldozer scooping up the body of the man, provoking anger among Palestinians.
Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the rockets, calling them a response to the killing of one its fighters along the Gaza border.
Islamic Jihad, which is backed by Iran, is one of the strongest militant groups in Gaza. Allied with Hamas, it has fought in a number of wars against Israel in recent decades.
Violence between Israel and Islamic Jihad flared up last November, when an Israel air strike killed a senior commander of the militant group in Gaza.
Clashes between Israel forces and Palestinians were seen earlier this month two days after US President Donald Trump revealed his peace plan.